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Dump Truck

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2007 Mack Granite CV713 T/A Dump Truck
A dump truck is mounted on a truck chassis with an attached dump bed or dump body. A dump truck is sometimes referred to as a production truck, tipper, or hauler, and is used for hauling aggregate material such as sand, gravel, dirt, or hot asphalt in construction, roadbuilding and surface mining applications.

Contents

[edit] History

The very first version of a dump truck used to haul and dump material was nothing more than a simple dump body style cart drawn by horses. It would have consisted of a two-wheeled cart hinged to the axle with the center of gravity, when loaded, just behind the axle. The loaded front body was hooked, and when unlatched, would dump. These carts were used in open mines and pulled by horses along a railway track. After 1900, a four-wheeled horse-drawn flatbed wagon with a rectangular body lifted with a hand hoist in the front was employed.[1]

In the book, 500 Years of Earthmoving, Heinz-Herbert Cohrs cites that before the first dump trucks appeared, excavated materials were being removed and hauled by locomotives and trolleys known as box tip wagons, dump bodies,and scoop tippers.

[edit] Early Truck Mounted Dump Bodies

The earliest versions of truck mounted dump bodies relied on the principle of gravity for dumping. The dump body pivoted off center and, when level, would be locked in place. Releasing the lock would activate the body to dump to the rear. The dump body, when empty, remained locked in a non-dumping position. When loaded, the dump body’s center of gravity would shift, activating it to dump. Some of the first trucks with dump bodies designed on this principle appeared as early as 1904 when the Mann gravity dump was built in England.[2]

[edit] Hydraulic Dump Bodies

Hydraulics were being incorporated into truck mounted dump bodies relatively early on. Records show that one of the first hydraulic dump bodies was the Robertson Steam Wagon with a hydraulic hoist that received power from the truck’s engine or an independent steam engine. Alley & McLellan of Glasgow developed another early hydraulic dump body in 1907 that was power-driven by steam.[3]

2000 Sterling LT9522 T/A Dump Truck

[edit] Coal Hoppers

Some of the first truck mounted dump bodies that resembled today’s bottom dump trucks were being used in the 1920s onward to move coal. The ability of dump trucks to deliver rapid unloading capabilities so more trips could be achieved in a shorter time frame was in great demand. This resulted in the development of a type of dump body called a hopper, similar to a hopper railcar. The dump body was elevated with struts and beams located on the underside in a scissor like pattern. Pulling the beams close together automatically elevated the dump body. Elevating the dump body allowed the free flow of material by gravity along chutes and for some distance from the truck. Four screws in each corner that were powered by the truck’s power take-off could also elevate the dump body. Gravity pitch would be designed into the body so that coal would feed out from the hopper into the chute. A gate at the bottom of the chute controlled the outpouring of coal.[4]

[edit] Crawler Tractor-trailers

In the middle of the 1920s, crawler tractors pulling heavy dump trailers mounted on wheels or tracks were becoming increasingly popular. Sometimes crawlers would pull two to five attached trailers. Companies began developing wagons specifically designed for attachment to crawler tractors. The first versions were mounted on tracks; however, when speed restrictions posed a problem, the wagons were mounted on wheels to improve speed. Manufacturers of such trailers and haulers included Euclid, James Hagy, LaPlant-Choate, Rex-Watson, and Streich and Western.[5]

[edit] Euclid Dump Trucks

Euclid was a pioneer in the development of dump trucks. George Armington Jr., son of founder George Armington, was a hydraulics designer and made two significant contributions to the world of dump trucks. These included the modern heavy duty off-highway truck and the wheel tractor bottom dump wagon.

In 1934 the company introduced its 10/11-ton dump truck called the "Trak Truk."  [6] It was the first rear-dump truck that was designed for heavy-duty off road service. This was followed up in 1936 with the company’s 15-ton Model IFD truck that featured a diesel engine, modern drive line, planetary final drives, leaf-spring suspension, and pneumatic tires. The truck replaced heavy, gasoline powered chain drive Mack trucks that had previously been used for standard work in construction and mining operations.[7]

Another prominent development was the launch of Euclid’s wheel tractor bottom dump wagon combination. The wheel tractor bottom dump had haul road speeds of 30 miles per hour (48 km) and extended haul distances beyond what was ever considered economically feasible. Along, with LeTourneau’s Tournapull, the Euclid bottom dump was a major advancement in earthmoving.[8]

[edit] LeTourneau’s Tournarockers

Some of the heaviest dump trucks that existed in the 1950s were articulated steering Tournarockers manufactured by Letourneau and pulled by the company’s Tournapull scraper towing machine. These dump trucks were very efficient because of their tight turning circles and the fact that the driving wheels always managed to maintain contact with the ground when dumping.[9]

[edit] Dump Trucks in the 1950s

By the 1940s the technological development of dump trucks had reached its peak. In the U.S., bottom dump trucks were already dominating earthmoving sites by the 1950s.[10] As the industry moved away from a reliance on rail operations to haul material, the need for domestically produced construction site tippers began to emerge. One of the heavy-duty dump trucks manufactured during this time was by Faun. The truck could carry up to 20 tons and was powered with a 180 horsepower engine. The dump trucks were considered “off-highway” dump trucks because of their width and axle weights.[11]

The decade continued to mark a proliferation in the manufacturing of dump trucks. In 1951, for example, Euclid produced the world’s largest dump truck when it manufactured the 1LLD. In 1954 Komatsu built the first dump truck on wheels that traveled at 26 miles (42 km) per hour and had a 13.60-ton payload.[12] In 1958, the 600 horsepower AP40 Autocar was the largest single engine dump truck on the market.[13]

[edit] Ralph H. Kress and the Haulpak

Ralph Kress is perhaps best known in the dump truck world for pioneering and bringing dump truck technology to the forefront, in particular, heavy-duty, off-road dump trucks used in mining.

Kress go his start as General Manager for Dart where he designed the first exclusive full power steering 75-TA rear dump truck with a 75-ton payload capacity. Designed for mining, the dump truck was the largest of its kind at the time.[14]

In 1955, as a consultant for WABCO (now Komatsu), he was instrumental in configuring a dump truck that incorporated a short wheelbase and had a high angle of turn with a deep, sloped, flat body known as a Haulpak and was viewed as the “quantum advance in design” with its hydro-pneumatic “Hydrair” struts.[15]

The first versions of the Haulpak were made available to the market in 1957 featuring 25- to 32-ton payload capacities and were eventually marketed and used as tractors to pull supplementary 75-ton trailers. These earlier versions, ranging from 25- to 32-ton range capacity, were too small initially to be used in open pit mines but gained acceptance from contractors. Eventually Haulpaks grew in size and became the dump truck of choice in the surface mining industry. The Haulpak would exist as the standard to which other off-highway dump trucks would come to be designed.

[edit] Features/How it Works

A conventional dump truck is mounted on a truck chassis and has an open dump box hydraulically operated and hinged at the rear of the truck usually by one or more hydraulic rams that raise the dump box to unload contents at a delivery site. These hydraulic rams are either front loaded or mounted in the underbody and are driven from a gear box power take-off. Hydraulic rams mounted in the underbody provide the capability of the dump body to tip the dump box on a three-way basis, either to the left or right side or to the rear.

[edit] Axles

Single axle dump trucks are the smallest sized dump truck on the market, tandem axle are standard sized, and the tri axle or multi axle dump truck is currently the largest dump truck available that requires a special permit to be operated and is dependent of State/Provincial laws.

[edit] Dump Body

All dump trucks despite the number of axles can be fitted with different box lengths. The truck’s dump bed or body is measured in terms of its payload capacity in cubic yards in two different ways. The first capacity related to the material filled level with the top of the sideboards called “water level” and the other for piled up material in yards called “heaped.” [16] Loads are sold based on volume because the weight of material hauled changes with moisture content. Sand exposed to rain for example, will weigh more than dry sand.

Dump beds come in various configurations with each type from four-wheelers for two to three tons payload to large, heavy-duty articulated and drawbar outfits grossing 50- to 60-ton payload capacities.[17] Each type of dump truck will be used for different types of construction or mining tasks based on its configurations.

[edit] Types

[edit] Standard Dump Truck

The standard dump truck is a full truck on a chassis with the dump body portion of the truck mounted directly onto the frame and raised by a hydraulic ram lift attached to the bulkhead located between the truck’s cab and the dump body. Most standard dump trucks have one front axle with one or more rear axles that support dual wheels on each side. Standard dump trucks come in the following configurations: a six-wheeler with one rear axle, a 10-wheeler with two rear axles, or a tri-axle with three rear axles. With a relatively shorter wheelbase, the standard dump truck has more maneuverability than other types of dump trucks.

[edit] Transfer Dump Truck

Transfer Dump Truck
A transfer dump truck, also known as a "slam-bang," consists of a standard dump truck pulling a separate trailer called an aggregate container or B box. The advantage of this configuration is maximizing payload capacity without comprising the maneuverability of a standard dump truck.

The truck operates as a standard dump truck. Then, when the truck is empty, the trailer body rolls into the truck body to dump its load.

The aggregate container is powered by electric or pneumatic motor, or a hydraulic line from the PTO (power take-off) mounted on the tractor, and travels on small wheels that roll on rails off of the trailer frame and into the main dump box.

The triple transfer train is another version of the transfer dump truck that has a C box in addition to a B box.

[edit] Truck and Pup

This version of a dump truck is similar to a transfer dump truck in that the truck pulls a detached dump trailer called a pup that has its own hydraulic ram and self-unloading capability.

[edit] Superdump Truck

The Superdump truck concept with trailing axles was developed by Strong Industries based in Houston, Texas in 1989. The company’s patented Strong Arm “trailing axle” is a liftable, load-bearing axle added to the rear of heavy trucks to increase payloads and maximize productivity. A super dump truck can have anywhere from four to seven axles and hauls payloads of up to 32-tons.[18] The Superdump truck is particularly useful for asphalt and concrete paving applications.

[edit] Semi Trailer End Dump Truck

The semi end dump truck is a dump truck trailer combination. The trailer contains a hydraulic hoist and on average features a tri axle tractor that pulls a tandem axle semi trailer giving it the advantage of rapid unloading. The semi trailer end dump truck can easily maneuver in reverse.

[edit] Semi Trailer Bottom Dump Truck

A semi trailer bottom dump truck also comprises a tri axle tractor in combination with a tandem axle trailer but with a dump gate located on the underside of the trailer that allows the driver to dump or lay material in the windrow.

[edit] Double and Triple Trailer Dump Truck

A double or triple bottom dump truck is a combination of a tandem axle tractor pulling a semi axle semi trailer in addition to another trailer. The advantage is that the driver of truck can dump material in the windrows and remain in the cab or stop the truck. This type of dump truck has a hard time reversing though.

1997 Kenworth T800B T/A Dump Truck

[edit] Side Dump Trailers

Side dump trailers mate with tractor/trucks, and feature power pull units in a tri axle or tandem axle semi truck design. Most manufactures use twin slave hydraulic five- to six-inch cylinder rams that tilt the tub bed to dispose of the material. All feature controlled, bi-directional dumping.

They have low profiles, and can dump on the run with windrows for uneven terrain applications.

Experienced operators can place the material on site, and on spot, eliminating the dozer push time needed to spread a stockpile of material.

[edit] Off-road Dump Trucks

These mammoth sized dump trucks are “heavy-duty” dump trucks used in off-road mining operations and large-scale dirt hauling jobs such as excavation work. In the mining industry, these super sized dump trucks are often called haul trucks. Loads can be dumped from the side or bottom of the truck.

[edit] Articulated Dump Trucks

Articulated dump trucks have a hinge in between the cab and the bed box. What makes the articulated dump truck unique is the cab is a permanent fixture and not a separate vehicle. Steering on articulated dump trucks are controlled by hydraulic rams that pivot the complete cab rather than rack-and-pinion steering in the front axle. Used on primarily on rough terrain applications and able to haul long distances, the articulated dump truck is extremely adaptable and versatile and is often called a “modern scraper.”

[edit] Common Manufacturers

[edit] Additional Photos

2003 Sterling Acterra S/A Dump Truck
1998 International 9200 T/A Dump Truck
1997 Volvo NH12 6x4 Tipper Truck
1985 Mack MS300 COE S/A Dump Truck
1995 Kenworth T400 T/A Dump Truck
1999 Mercedes-Benz 312D 4x2 Camion Dumper Dump Truck

[edit] References

  1. Wood, Donald. F Dump Trucks. MBI: 2001.6.
  2. Wood, Donald. F Dump Trucks. MBI: 2001.6.
  3. Wood, Donald. F Dump Trucks. MBI: 2001.6.
  4. Wood, Donald. F Dump Trucks. MBI: 2001.12.
  5. Cohrs, Heinz-Herbert. 500 years of Earthmoving. KHL: 1997.104.
  6. Haycraft, William. Yellow Steel: The Story of the Earthmoving Equipment Industry. Scholarly Book Services Inc., 2002. 81.
  7. Haycraft, William. Yellow Steel: The Story of the Earthmoving Equipment Industry. Scholarly Book Services Inc., 2002. 81.
  8. Haycraft, William. Yellow Steel: The Story of the Earthmoving Equipment Industry. Scholarly Book Services Inc., 2002. 81.
  9. Cohrs, Heinz-Herbert. 500 years of Earthmoving. KHL: 1997.188.
  10. Heinz-Herbert Cohrs, 500 years of Earthmoving pg. 188
  11. Cohrs, Heinz-Herbert. 500 years of Earthmoving. KHL: 1997.188.
  12. Cohrs, Heinz-Herbert. 500 years of Earthmoving. KHL: 1997.188.
  13. Cohrs, Heinz-Herbert. 500 years of Earthmoving. KHL: 1997.188.
  14. Spencer Penrose. Mining Hall of Fame Inductees Database. 2008-09-24.
  15. Haycraft, William. Yellow Steel: The Story of the Earthmoving Equipment Industry. Scholarly Book Services Inc., 2002. 177
  16. Wood, Donald. F. Dump Trucks. MBI: 2001.5
  17. Carroll, John and Davies, Peter.The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Tractors and Trucks. Lorenz Book: 2000. 288
  18. Homepage. Super Dumps. 2008-09-25.